Histology and Embryology



First year, both semesters, finished by the examination, 10 ECTS.


First semester
Lecture 2 hours once or twice weekly, practical training 3 hours weekly.

Basic histological techniques
Basic technique of histological specimen processing, processing of specimen for electron microscopy, imaging devices, synoptic and special staining.
General structure of cell, plasma membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, inclusions, cytoskeleton (microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules), centriole; nucleus (nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus).
General embryology
Fertilization, cleavage of the ovum, blastogenesis, implantation, development of embryoblast, bilaminar germ disc, trilaminar germ disc, notogenesis.
Periods of intrauterine life and changes of embryonic and fetal external appearance.
Epithelial tissue

Epithelial cells, specializations of cell surfaces, classification of epithelia, glandular epithelia.
Connective tissue
General characteristic of connective tissue, fibrillar component and ground substance of extracellular matrix, cells of connective tissue. Connective tissue proper, types of connective tissue proper. General characteristic of cartilage, types of cartilage. General characteristic of bone, types of bone, bone histogenesis, growth and remodeling, joints.
Nerve tissue
General characteristic, neurons (cell body, dendrites, axon), synapses, neuroglia, myelination.
Muscle tissue
General characteristic, types of muscle tissue, mechanism of contraction, regeneration.
Formed elements of blood (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets), formation of formed blood elements.
Molecular aspects of development
Introduction to developmental biology. Genes in development. Gene expression during development. Developmental programs and regulation elements in DNA and RNA. Cell signalization pathways and network. Cell interaction. Basic cell mode: division, differentiation and death.
Development of tissue systems and body cavities

Development of skeletal and muscle systems, development of limbs. Development of coelom and diaphragm.
Development of fetal membranes and placenta

Development of trophoblast, fetal membranes, placenta, twin pregnancy.
Circulatory system
General structure of vessels, capillaries, arteries, veins, lymphatic vessels, heart.
Lymphoid system
General structure and classification of lymphoid organs, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils.

Second semester
Lecture 2 hours once or twice weekly, practical training 4 hours weekly.

Organogenesis of circulatory and lymphatic systems
Development of the heart, arteries and veins, primitive and fetal circulation, circulatory changes at birth, development of lymphoid vessels and organs. 

Digestive system

General structure of digestive tract, oral cavity, tongue, teeth, oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine.
Glands associated with the digestive tract - salivary glands, pancreas, liver, biliary tract.
Respiratory system
Epithelium lining airways, structures responsible for air conditioning, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, alveoli, interalveolar septum.
Organogenesis of digestive and respiratory systems

Development of the face, oral and nasal cavities and teeth, primitive gut and its development, pharyngeal gut, development of glands associated with the digestive tract, development of respiratory organs, stages of the lung development.
Urinary system
Structure of kidneys (renal corpuscle, nephrons, collecting tubules and ducts, juxtaglomerular apparatus), urinary passages.
Male reproductive system
Structure of testis, spermatogenesis, intratesticular and excretory genital ducts, accessory genital glands, penis.
Female reproductive system
Structure of ovary, ovarian follicles, ovulation, corpus luteum, oviduct, uterus, changes in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle, vagina, external genitalia.
Organogenesis of urinary and genital systems
Development of the intermediate mesoderm, pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros - permanent kidney, development of urinary passages, development of testes and ovaries, development of male and female genital ducts, development of external genitalia.
Endocrine system
Hypophysis (adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis), pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid glands, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla.
Nervous system
Central and peripheral nervous system, grey and white matter, spinal cord, cerebellum, cerebrum, meninges, choroid plexus, peripheral nerves, nerve ganglia.
Organogenesis of nervous and endocrine systems
Neurulation, histogenesis of the neural tube, primitive brain vesicles, development of the spinal cord and brain, development of the peripheral nerves, development of the endocrine organs.
Epidermis, keratinization, melanocytes and pigment formation, dermis, skin adnexes (hair, nails, glands of the skin), mammary gland.
Organogenesis of skin
Developmental stages of the skin, development of skin adnexes and derivatives.
Sense organs
Classification of sense organs receptors. Somatic and visceral receptors. Structure of eye (fibrous, vascular and nervous layers, lens, vitreous body, accessory structures of eye). Chemoreceptors (olfactory epithelium, taste buds). Audioreceptors (structure of ear, external, middle and internal ear). Proprioceptors.
Organogenesis of sense organs
Development of the eye and ear, development of the olfactory epithelium.
Special histological techniques
Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, lectin histochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, in situ hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Programmed cell death and its regulation
Apoptosis. Neutrophins. Regulators, adaptors and effectors of apoptotic pathways. Caspases.
Embryonic cloning
Stem cells, therapeutic cloning, transgenic organisms, knockout and knockin. Regulative and mosaic development. Preimplantation diagnosis.
Stem cells
Characteristic and cultivation of stem cells. Cell therapy, regenerative medicine and its perspectives.
Morphogenetic processes. Mosaic and regulative embryos. Maternal and zygotic genes, homeobox genes. Ontogenesis regulation. Model organisms.
Etiology of birth defects, prenatal extinction, development aberrations. Critical period and period of sensitivity, developmental toxicity manifestations. Relation between mutagenesis and teratogenesis. Proved human teratogens.
Biology of aging
Longevity. Genetic nature of aging, genes controlling aging. Mitochondrial interaction. Diet restriction. Free radicals. Developmental biology and human diseases.